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Kigali

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'''OVERVIEW'''
 
Rwanda is a country that has shown remarkable progress related to sexual and reproductive health care in the past few decades. You can legally obtain oral contraceptives (birth control pills) without a prescription, and condoms are widely sold in pharmacies, kiosks, bars and markets. Other contraceptive methods, such as IUDs and injectables, are also available. Furthermore, you can obtain the emergency contraceptive pill (morning after pill) without a prescription. The country provides universal health care coverage for HIV patients, and aggressive efforts have been made to reduce HIV transmission from parent to child in the country. While we're not sure if PrEP is available in Rwanda, PEP should be available. Menstrual hygiene is a challenging issue in Rwanda, where many women have inadequate access to menstrual products and may miss school during their periods. We have provided more information on this topic in the "Menstruation" section. Regarding pregnancy, women are entitled to 12 weeks of maternity leave with full pay, though this right may not translate to all workers and all work environments. Finally, abortion is permitted in some cases, which are detailed in the "Abortion" section. Overall, Rwanda, like all countries, experiences challenges and hurdles related to women's health care. However, it has also demonstrated focused and effective strategies to rebuild its health care infrastructure and tackle immediate issues of concern, such as HIV transmission from mother to child.
==Contraception (Birth Control)==
In Rwanda, you can obtain oral contraceptives (birth control pills) without a prescription.<ref>[http://ocsotc.org/wp-content/uploads/worldmap/worldmap.html Global Oral Contraception Availability]</ref> <ref>[http://freethepill.org/where-on-earth/ Free the Pill: Where on Earth]</ref>
Overall, Rwanda has shown massive progress when it comes to reproductive health care access. From 2000 to 2010, the proportion of married women using modern contraceptive methods went from 4% to 40%, and the percentage of women with unmet family planning needs went from 36% to 19%.<ref>[https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/abortion-rwanda Guttmacher Institute: Abortion in Rwanda, April 2013]</ref> According to a 2015 UN report, it was found that 53.5% of women in Rwanda (who are married/in unions and of reproductive age) use some form of contraception, including traditional methods. Meanwhile, about 20% of Rwandan women have unmet family planning needs. The number of Rwandan women who use contraceptives is higher than the East African regional average, where about 40% of women use contraceptives.<ref>[http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/family/trendsContraceptiveUse2015Report.pdf Trends in
Contraceptive Use Worldwide 2015]</ref>
Contraceptive Use Worldwide 2015]</ref>
There Despite notable progress, there is certainly work room for improvement related to be done to improve contraceptive accessibility and education in the country. In RwandaRwandan schools, there is exists no comprehensive sex-education in schools,<ref>[http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/read/65697/ Sex education remains unspoken in secondary schools]</ref> though efforts have been made to improve the teacher training of teachers in sex-education topics by UNFPA, as of 2016.<ref>[http://rwanda.unfpa.org/en/news/new-curriculum-promote-sex-education-schools New curriculum to promote sex education in schools]</ref>Furthermore, nearly half of all pregnancies (47%) in Rwanda are unintended, as of 2013.<ref>[https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/abortion-rwanda Guttmacher Institute: Abortion in Rwanda, April 2013]</ref> There are significant issues related to sexual trauma, sexual violence and bodily autonomy experienced by many Rwandans, following the Rwandan Civil War and Rwandan Genocide, as well. To speak broadly, sexual and reproductive health care options have expanded since 2000, yet education, accessibility and sensitivity are still major issues that the country continues to grapple with. According to a Kigali local: "The stigma of birth control has diminished as the country develops, and especially as a lot more young Rwandans return home after doing their studies abroad. It's a lot more common now to openly admit that you are on the pill, for example. However, there is a huge difference in class here. Middle-class or Rwandans (or those that have returned recently from US, Europe, or Canada) are totally fine going on birth control. Among the majority of the population (still living in relative poverty), pre-marital sex is still frowned upon, and as a result, contraceptives are viewed as promiscuous. Condoms are promoted (moth male and female), but for 'good, God-fearing' people, it is not good to be seen with a condom on you, as this seen as a signal that you are sleeping around." (March 2018)
===What to Get & Where to Get It===
* In Rwanda, you can find '''condoms''' distributed in boutiques, pharmacies, kiosks, bars, health facilities, outreach centers (like community-based distributors) and online stores. The condoms provided in the public sector tend to be generic, non-brand condoms. If you go to the social-marketing centers, you may get condoms that are under the name "Prudence Plus." Overall, Rwanda doesn't have a high level of diversity in the condom sector yet, and only a few main brands are for sale. They tend to be most readily available in urban boutiques, but stock-outs can be an issue experienced by all vendors and facilities at times.<ref>[http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_protect/@protrav/@ilo_aids/documents/legaldocument/wcms_132562.pdf Rwanda National Policy on Condoms]</ref> If you want to purchase condoms online, you can find Moods and Kama X condoms sold on the [https://www.kasha.rw/product-category/love-sex/ Kasha website] for 1000 RWF per pack, as of February 2018.
* You should be able to find '''oral contraceptives (birth control pills)''' sold in pharmacies and online retailers, like [https://www.kasha.rw/product-category/love-sex/ Kasha]. Some of the brands you can expect to see are Diane-35, Microgynon, Microlut, Neogynon, Lo-Femenal and , Ovrette, and Yasmine.<ref>[http://ec.princeton.edu/ Princeton EC Website]</ref> <ref>[Conversation with pharmacy in Kigali, May 2018]</ref> * You can find '''intra-urine intrauterine devices (IUDs)''' in Rwanda. On You can get an IUD inserted at [http://legacyclinics.rw/ Legacy Clinics] for 10,000 RWF, as of March 2018. Furthermore, on the [https://www.kasha.rw/product-category/love-sex/ Kasha website], you can purchase the SMB copper IUD for 14,000 RWF or the Mirena IUD for 90,000 RWF, as of February 2018.* You can find '''contraceptive shots/injectables''' in Rwanda. On One pharmacy in Kigali told us that they sold Confiance, an injectable that lasts for 3 months for 500 RWF, as of May 2018.<ref>[Conversation with pharmacy in Kigali, May 2018]</ref> Furthermore, on the [https://www.kasha.rw/product-category/love-sex/ Kasha website], you can purchase a 3-months supply of Depo-Provera for 700 RWF, or you can purchase Norigynon injectables for 1000 RWF (1-month supply) or 2000 RWF (2-month supply), as of February 2018.
* You can find '''contraceptive implants''' in Rwanda. On the [https://www.kasha.rw/product-category/love-sex/ Kasha website], you can purchase the Implanon implant, which lasts 3 years, for 5000 RWF, or you can you can purchase the Jadelle implant, which lasts 5 years, for 5000 RWF, as of February 2018.
* According to a local source, the '''contraceptive ring (Nuvaring)''' is available in Rwanda, but we'll need more information to confirm.
===Resources & Organizations===
===Costs===
 
* In a conversation with one pharmacy in Kigali, we were told that they sold Confiance (contraceptive injectables) for 500 RWF, and they sold Microgynon for 1000 RWF (as of May 2018).<ref>[Conversation with pharmacy in Kigali, May 2018]</ref>
==Emergency Contraception (Morning After Pill)==
===Laws & Social Stigmas===
In Rwanda, it appears that you can obtain emergency contraceptive pills (morning after pills) without a prescriptionat pharmacies. FurthermoreHowever, emergency due to the price of ECPs at pharmacies, it is often too expensive for most Rwandan locals. Emergency contraception is included in police protocol for survivors of rape or sexual violence. However, Rwandan laws related to emergency contraception are rather vague and don't clearly defined what is permitted. For example, the National Family Planning Policy does not include information related to emergency contraception and Rwanda’s Health Sector Strategic Plan for 2009-2012 also does not mention emergency contraception. Yet, Rwanda’s National Training Module for Family Planning (March 2008) does include a chapter on emergency contraception. This leads to a muddled understanding of emergency contraception that translates into confusion on hospital floors. In 2009, a survey found that only 13% of Rwandan clinics had guidelines related to EC, and many of these facilities did not have EC available in the rooms that they had dedicated to working with victims of sexual violence. However, the Yuzpe method of emergency contraception (i.e. using regular birth control pills as EC) was available in 62% of the surveyed facilities.<ref>[http://www.cecinfo.org/custom-content/uploads/2013/09/Rwanda_2013.pdf COUNTING WHAT COUNTS: TRACKING ACCESS TO EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION IN RWANDA]</ref>
===What to Get & Where to Get It===
* In Rwanda, you can purchase emergency contraceptive pills (morning after pills) without a prescription. You can find them at pharmacy and health centers. Some of the brands you can expect to see are NorLevo 1.5mg, Pill 2 and , Pill 72.<ref>[http://www.cecinfo.org/country-by-country-information/status-availability-database/countries/rwanda/ ICEC: EC Status and Availability: Rwanda]</ref> <ref>[Conversation with pharmacy in Kigali, May 2018]</ref> You can also buy NorLevo (emergency contraceptive pill) online at [https://www.kasha.rw/product-category/love-sex/ Kasha]. For one tablet, you pay 6000 RWFif you buy it online, as of February 2018.
* If you cannot obtain dedicated emergency contraception, you can use regular oral contraceptives (birth control pills) as replacement emergency contraception. To do this, you can take Ovrette (Take 40 pills within 120 hours after unprotected sex), Neogynon (Take 2 pills within 120 hours after unprotected sex and take 2 more pills 12 hours later), Lo-Femenal (Take 4 pills within 120 hours after unprotected sex and take 4 more pills 12 hours later) or Microgynon-30 (Take 4 pills within 120 hours after unprotected sex and take 4 more pills 12 hours later).<ref>[http://ec.princeton.edu/ Princeton EC Website]</ref> Note that, in 28-day packs, only the first 21 pills can be used. For updated information on how and when to take birth control pills as replacement ECPs, please visit the [http://ec.princeton.edu/ Princeton EC Website].
* You can also use an intra-urine device (IUD) as emergency contraception. Consult with your physician or local health care provider to find more details.
===Costs===
 
You can expect to pay between 6,000 RWF to 15,000 RWF for the emergency contraceptive pill (morning after pill), as of May 2018. This is very expensive for most local Rwandans, so most people cannot afford it.
==Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs/STDs)==
In Rwanda, there are no travel restrictions related to HIV/AIDS. This means that, if you're a foreigner and you plan to visit Rwanda, you will not be asked about your HIV status or be required to share any medical information. If you're a foreigner and want to live in Rwanda as a legal resident, the information related to this topic is a bit mixed. Some sources seem to state that foreigners who apply for residency will not face any regulations or threats of deportation related to the HIV status. However, other sources seem to state that, if someone is infected with HIV/AIDS, their residency application may be refused.<ref>[http://www.hivtravel.org/Default.aspx?PageId=143&CountryId=150 RWANDA - REGULATIONS ON ENTRY, STAY AND RESIDENCE FOR PLHIV]</ref> If you have updated information about this topic, please update the page.
 
Generally speaking, Rwanda has shown remarkable progress in rebuilding its HIV/AIDS resources in the past few decades. The Rwandan genocide destroyed the HIV treatment infrastructure in the country, which needed to then be rebuilt from the ground up. Since that time, Rwanda has focused on trying to prevent more HIV infections, especially from mother to child. In 2016, it was estimated that about 220,000 people (adults and children) in Rwanda and about 3.1% of adults in Rwanda are living with HIV.<ref>[http://www.unaids.org/en/regionscountries/countries/rwanda UNAIDS Country factsheets - RWANDA 2016]</ref> The country provides universal health coverage for HIV patients, though the effort to ensure that everyone is covered is still ongoing.<ref>[http://www.aidsmap.com/Abolishing-HIV-in-Rwanda/page/2845701/ Abolishing HIV in Rwanda]</ref> You can watch a PBS special on Rwanda's efforts to prevent HIV transmission and ensure that HIV-positive people are properly medicated [https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/rwanda-torn-genocide-became-global-anti-aids-leader here].
 
From a Kigali local: "Tests for STI/STDs are very easy to get at the many medical centers around town. It can be costly at some of the private clinics, but you can also find cheaper options at public hospitals. HIV tests are cheap, and people are encouraged to get tested. Among the Rwandans I know, getting tested is a completely normal thing --- it is not shameful. People will even go with their partner, as part of the dating ritual. Again, this is what I know from the Rwandans I spend time with, and these are middle-class." (March 2018)
===Testing Facilities===
===Support===
* Centre Hospitalier De Kigali: This hospital seems to be the main provider of HIV treatment in Rwanda. They provide antiretroviral medication, such as Combivir, Epivir, Crixivan, Sustiva. They may also have Videx and Zerit. In the past, the monthly cost of combination therapy was 130'000 Rwandan Francs (ca. 700 DEM), but we're not sure about teh the current price. The doctor in charge at the CHK is Dr. Kogame (internist).<ref>[http://www.hivtravel.org/Default.aspx?PageId=143&CountryId=150 RWANDA - REGULATIONS ON ENTRY, STAY AND RESIDENCE FOR PLHIV]</ref>
* University Hospital, Butare: They have antiretroviral medication in stock, but they're probably more expensive than Centre Hospitalier De Kigali.<ref>[http://www.hivtravel.org/Default.aspx?PageId=143&CountryId=150 RWANDA - REGULATIONS ON ENTRY, STAY AND RESIDENCE FOR PLHIV]</ref>
* You can find antiretroviral medication in some pharmacies in Kigali, but they may be more expensive than obtaining them from Centre Hospitalier De Kigali.<ref>[http://www.hivtravel.org/Default.aspx?PageId=143&CountryId=150 RWANDA - REGULATIONS ON ENTRY, STAY AND RESIDENCE FOR PLHIV]</ref>
===Costs===
 
There is universal health coverage of HIV treatment in Rwanda. However, the efforts to ensure that everyone is covered and receiving treatment in Rwanda is still ongoing. In 2014, it was found that some health centers covered about 80% of patients while others only covered about 20%.<ref>[http://www.aidsmap.com/Abolishing-HIV-in-Rwanda/page/2845701/ Abolishing HIV in Rwanda]</ref> However, the rate of coverage may have improved in the years since the study was conducted.
==Medications & Vaccines==
===What to Get & Where to Get It===
* If you have a '''yeast infection''', you can find medications over-the-counter at pharmacies. No prescription is required and the medications tend to be rather affordable. You can try to ask the pharmacist for Fluconazole, which treats fungal infections. If they don't have Fluconazole, they may have something that is similar.* If you have a '''urinary tract infection (UTI)''', you can find medications over-the-counter at pharmacies. No prescription is required and the medications tend to be rather affordable.
* Regarding the '''HPV vaccine''', Rwanda has had a nationwide vaccination program in place since 2011. The program targets all girls in Primary 6 (ages 11-12 years old) for vaccination, and the vaccination consists of three doses to be considered complete.<ref>[http://www.hpvcentre.net/statistics/reports/RWA.pdf Human Papillomavirus and Related Diseases Report - RWANDA, 2017]</ref>
* Regarding '''Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP)''', it doesn't appear to be widely available yet in Rwanda, as of February 2018.<ref>[https://www.prepwatch.org/ PrEPWatch World Map]</ref> However, Health Development Initiative (HDI) and AVAC, a US-based NGO, are working to raise media awareness and influence policymakers in support of PrEP access and awareness in Rwanda.<ref>[https://www.avac.org/sites/default/files/resource-files/PREP%20Brochure%20final.pdf Health Development Initiative - PRE-EXPOSURE PROPHYLAXIS TO END HIV]</ref>
===What to Get & Where to Get It===
* [http://www.bahopolyclinic.com/ Baho Polyclinic]: This medical center was established in 2009 and has multiple ob/gyns on staff. It was recommended by a Kigali local. A consultation is typically around 13,000 RWF (as of March 2018). Address: KN 4 Avenue 36, Nyarugenge, Kigali Rwanda. Email: info@bahopolyclinic.com. Phone: 3130. Mobile: (+250)789339974. Hours: Mon - Sun: 24/7 Hours.* [http://legacyclinics.rw/ Legacy Clinics]: This specialty clinic has four gynecologists. The average cost of a gynecological exam is 28000 rwf (as of March 2018), and the cost of a pap smear is 30900 rwf (as of March 2018). Recommended gynecologists: Dr.Mohamed Okasha (male gynecologist) has been recommended by a Kigali local. You can walk in, call them or book an appointment online. Address: KK 3 Rd, Kigali, Rwanda. Hotline: 8000. TEL: +250-788382000/ +250-723382000/ +250-733682000. Email: info@legacyclinics.rw.
* Kigali Medical Center: This clinic is located in Kimironko. Dr Heba (female gynecologist) has been recommended by a Kigali local who says "she's great" and paid 13,000 for a visit. Address: KG 78 St, Kigali, Rwanda.
===Laws & Social Stigmas===
 
In Rwanda, women are entitled to 12 weeks of maternity leave with full pay. If there are complications in the delivery, the mother is entitled to an additional month of maternity leave. To be eligible for maternity leave, the mother must have contributed social security at least one month before the maternity leave is planned to start.<ref>[http://www.rssb.rw/content/maternity-leave RSSB (Rwanda Social Security Board): Maternity Leave]</ref> For more information on maternity leave laws in Rwanda, you can visit the [http://www.rssb.rw/content/maternity-leave RSSB (Rwanda Social Security Board) website].
===What to Get & Where to Get It===
===Laws & Social Stigmas===
 
In Rwanda, abortion is legally permitted when the pregnancy endangers the life of the pregnant individual, when the pregnancy endangers the physical or mental health of the pregnant individual, when there is severe risk of fetal impairment, or when the pregnancy is the result of rape, incest or forced marriage.<ref>[https://www.womenonwaves.org/en/page/5017/abortion-law-rwanda Women on Waves: Abortion Law in Rwanda]</ref> <ref>[http://worldabortionlaws.com/map/ World Abortion Laws Map]</ref> <ref>[http://allafrica.com/stories/201710060060.html Rwanda: Government Moves to Relax Anti-Abortion Law]</ref> <ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/rwanda-abortion/rwandan-rape-survivors-jailed-for-abortion-despite-law-to-help-them-report-idUSL5N11T2OI20150924 Rwandan rape survivors jailed for abortion despite law to help them]</ref> In all other cases, abortion is not legally permitted. This means that it is not available upon request and it is not available for social or economic reasons. If someone illegally tries to self-induce an abortion, they may be subject to fines and up to three years in prison.<ref>[https://www.reproductiverights.org/sites/crr.civicactions.net/files/documents/crr_Rwanda_Abortion_Law.pdf Rwanda Abortion Law]</ref> The current laws are based on Rwanda's Penal Code of 1977 and the updated Penal Code of 2012.<ref>[http://eaclj.org/about-us/13-the-christian-medical-fellowship-abortion-.html East Africa Centre for Law and Justice: Abortion in Rwanda]</ref> For a copy of Rwanda's abortion provisions, click [https://www.reproductiverights.org/sites/crr.civicactions.net/files/documents/crr_Rwanda_Abortion_Law.pdf here].
 
For an abortion to be legal, it must first be approved by a judge and it can only be performed by a doctor. If the abortion is legally permitted for health-related reasons, it must receive the written approval of two doctors before it can be performed. These restrictions create severe hurdles for many people, as they must have the money and resources to hire lawyers and work within the legal and medical systems before receiving approval for an abortion. Furthermore, courts can be slow in permitting abortions. For example, court orders for an abortion in cases of rape often usually occur after the rapist has been convicted, leading to potentially significant delays for the individual seeking an abortion.<ref>[https://www.reuters.com/article/rwanda-abortion/rwandan-rape-survivors-jailed-for-abortion-despite-law-to-help-them-report-idUSL5N11T2OI20150924 Rwandan rape survivors jailed for abortion despite law to help them]</ref>
 
For these reasons, it is much more common for Rwandans to seek underground or clandestine abortions than to seek out abortions through legal channels.<ref>[http://www.newtimes.co.rw/section/read/191336/ Why are more women opting for illegal abortion?]</ref> In 2013 report, it was found that nearly half (47%) of pregnancies were unintended and an estimated 22% of unintended pregnancies result in abortion. In 2009, there were 60,000 abortions in Rwanda per year, which roughly equaled 25 abortions per 1000 woman, aged 15-44. The most abortions are performed in Kigali, which account for one-third of all abortions in the country. About half of the abortions in Rwanda are performed by medical professionals, such as trained midwives or medical assistants, but another half are performed by people who do not have medical training, and these abortions are considered high-risk. It is estimated that about 40% of women who have abortions experience complications, and 30% of women who have complications do not obtain the medical treatment and attention that they need. The highest rate of complications result from women who try to induce abortions themselves or who go to traditional healers.<ref>[https://www.guttmacher.org/fact-sheet/abortion-rwanda Guttmacher Institute: Abortion in Rwanda, 2013]</ref>
===What to Get & Where to Get It===
 
* You may be able to obtain Misopostrol (the abortion pill) from Women on Waves. Visit their [https://www.womenonwaves.org/ website] for more details.
* If you are considering leaving the country to obtain a legal abortion, you can get legal abortions upon request in [[Mozambique]]. You can get an abortion for social or economic reasons (but we don't know how difficult this is to prove) in [[Zambia]]. Outside the East Africa region, you can receive abortions upon request in countries such as [[South Africa]], [[Tunisia]], [[China]], [[Vietnam]] and [[India]], as well as many European countries.
===Costs===
 
If you are pregnant and considering getting an abortion outside Rwanda, you will need to consider the following costs: visa processing and appointment costs, transportation to the country where you will be obtaining an abortion, hotel or accommodation costs in that country, cost of the abortion in the country and the total amount of days you may need to be in the country both before and after the abortion.
==Advocacy & Counseling==
* [http://www.rwandawomennetwork.org/healthCare&support.html Polyclinic of Hope]: "The Polyclinic of Hope (PoH) came into being in 1997 as an intervention of the Rwanda Women’s Network. Adopting a holistic approach, the PoH responded to the plight of women survivors of sexual and gender-based violence by addressing their health, psychosocial, shelter and socio-economic needs in the aftermath of the 1994 genocide."
* [http://avega.org.rw/ AVEGA - RWANDA (Association of the survivors of the genocide)]: They provide medical care and treatment related to trauma issues. They also help widows in rebuilding their lives. BP 1535 Kigali-Rwanda. Tel/Fax: 0171 460 0596
===Costs===
* [http://www.rwandawomennetwork.org/ Rwanda Women's Network]: "Rwanda Women’s Network (RWN) is a national humanitarian non-governmental organization (NGO) dedicated to promotion and improvement of the socio-economic welfare of women in Rwanda since coming to being in 1997." Mailing Address: Kagugu, Mucyo Estate KG 54, off KG 482 – Kinyinya Sector (Near SOS Technical School), P.O Box 3157, Kigali, RWANDA. Tel: +250 788 334 257. E-mail: rwawnet@rwanda1.rw / info@rwandawomennetwork.org
* [https://www.womenforwomen.org/what-we-do/countries/rwanda Women for Women International - Rwanda]: "Since 1997, Women for Women International – Rwanda has served more than 75,000 women through our yearlong program."
* [http://www.ywcaofrwanda.org/ YWCA of Rwanda]: "The Young Women’s Christian Association (YWCA) of Rwanda is a non-governmental, non-profit organisation that works at the grass roots level. It is a membership organization for women and young girls. It was established following the genocide and in response to the rising concern for the many widows and children left in its wake. The organisation became affiliated to the World YWCA movement in 1999 and was legally recognized by the Rwandan government in September 2005. YWCA Rwanda currently works across 8 districts in Rwanda." Mailing Address: P.O. Box 48 KIGALI. Telephone number: +250 788484514. E-mail address: ywcarwa@yahoo.fr or ywca.rwa@gmail.com,info@ywcaofrwanda.org
* [https://www.nwc-umutima.org/ Nyamirambo Women’s Center (NWC)]: "Nyamirambo Women’s Center (NWC), a Rwandan NGO, was launched at the end of 2007 by 18 Rwandese women living in Nyamirambo, Kigali. Together they created a project which aimed to address gender-based violence, gender inequality and discrimination. Today, NWC’s mission is to provide education and vocational training to women who do not have the means to pay for such training on their own, so that they can gain better opportunities for employment." Address: Nyamirambo Women’s Center, House 22, KN 7 Avenue (on the corner with KN 132 Street), PO BOX 1418, Kigali, Rwanda. Opening Hours: Monday to Saturday, 9am to 5pm (except for Umuganda Saturday, the last Saturday of every month: 12pm to 5pm). Phone: +250 782 111 860. Email: nwcoffice.kigali@gmail.com
* [http://urugowoc.org/ Urugo Women’s Opportunity Center]: "Built and operated by Women for Women International with the generous funding from Bloomberg Philanthropies and others, the Urugo Women’s Opportunity Center provides a safe environment and dedicated facilities where women can learn, build new skills, and operate businesses that directly contribute to the local communities." Phone: +250 788350577. Email: guwamariya@urugowoc.com.
* Association Rwandaise Des Femmes Pour L'environnement Et Le Developpement: Mailing Address: P.O. Box 1364, Kigali, Rwanda. Tel: 250 77283. Fax: 250 76574
* AVEGA - RWANDA (Association of the survivors of the genocide): BP 1535 Kigali-Rwanda. Tel/Fax: 0171 460 0596
* International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda: Mailing Address: P.O.Box 749, Kigali, Rwanda. Tel: (212)963-9906.
* Ministry of Family and Women in Development (MIFAPROFE): B.P. 969, Kigali, Rwanda
Bureaucrat, emailconfirmed, administrator (SMW), administrator, translator
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