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[[File:Istanbul-1084458 960 720.jpg|500px | thumb|right|alt=Image provided by Creative Commons.|]]
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'''OVERVIEW'''
 
'''OVERVIEW'''
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===Laws & Social Stigmas===
 
===Laws & Social Stigmas===
  
In Turkey, you do not need a prescription to purchase birth control pills or condoms at pharmacies. While President Erdogan made headlines by advising Muslim families to avoid birth control in May 2016, birth control is still available in Turkey. Furthermore, the rate of contraceptive use has increased in the past few decades. According to a 2015 United Nations report, it is estimated that 74.2% of Turkish women (who are of reproductive age and married or in unions) use some form of contraception. Meanwhile, 6.1% of Turkish women have unmet family planning needs. However, it should be emphasized that a great portion of Turkish women use traditional contraceptive methods. In fact, the most common form of contraception used by women is the withdrawal or "pull-out" method (25.8%). Following this method, the most common methods are IUDs (16.9%), condoms (15.9%), female sterilization (9.5%) and birth control pills (4.6%). Meanwhile, there is extremely low usage of contraceptive injectables (0.6%) and essentially none for contraceptive implants (0.0%). In total, this means that the vast majority of women in Turkey today depend on withdrawal, IUDs or condoms for their contraceptive methods.<ref>[http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/family/trendsContraceptiveUse2015Report.pdf Trends in World Contraceptive Use 2015]</ref>
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In Turkey, you do not need a prescription to purchase birth control. While President Erdogan made headlines by advising Muslim families to avoid birth control in May 2016, birth control is still widely used. According to one study, it is estimated that 48% of Turkish women are using a modern contraceptive.<ref>[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prevalence_of_birth_control Prevalence of Birth Control Wikipedia Article]</ref> According to a 1998 study, 63.9% of women practiced some form of birth control, with 4.4% on the pill, 19.8% with IUD and 24.4% practicing the pull-out method.<ref>[http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0193123.html Infoplease data on contraceptive use]</ref>
 
 
Despite increasingly religious government policies, Turkey has also seen an increase in contraceptive use over the past two decades. In a 1998 study, 63.9% of women practiced some form of birth control, with 4.4% on the pill, 19.8% with IUD and 24.4% practicing the pull-out method.<ref>[http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0193123.html Infoplease data on contraceptive use]</ref> This is compared to the 74.2% of Turkish women who used birth control in 2015.
 
  
 
===What to Get & Where to Get It===
 
===What to Get & Where to Get It===
  
 
In Istanbul, birth control pills are available in many pharmacies ("eczanes" in Turkish). While pharmacies don't have tons of options, they do carry a few brands, including  Yasmin,Yazz and some generic brands. NuvaRing is also available in Istanbul. Most pharmacies do not carry the Nuvaring but the bigger ones (i.e. In shopping malls) have it, without prescription for max 36tl per 1-month pack. There are no limitations as for how many packages you can buy.
 
In Istanbul, birth control pills are available in many pharmacies ("eczanes" in Turkish). While pharmacies don't have tons of options, they do carry a few brands, including  Yasmin,Yazz and some generic brands. NuvaRing is also available in Istanbul. Most pharmacies do not carry the Nuvaring but the bigger ones (i.e. In shopping malls) have it, without prescription for max 36tl per 1-month pack. There are no limitations as for how many packages you can buy.
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There are no DivaCup sellers in Turkey so it should be purchased online. There is only one registered mooncup seller in Turkey (in Canakkale) so it should also be purchased online.
  
 
===Costs===
 
===Costs===
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Ella, a single 30mg tablet, costs 51.50 TL and is available over the counter in Istanbul.
 
Ella, a single 30mg tablet, costs 51.50 TL and is available over the counter in Istanbul.
  
==Medications & Vaccines==
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==Medications==
 
 
[[File:Pharmacy istanbul.jpg|400px | thumb|left|'''Pharmacy in Istanbul''']]
 
  
 
===Laws & Social Stigmas===
 
===Laws & Social Stigmas===
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There are no known sellers of DivaCup in Turkey so it should be purchased online. The only known seller of Mooncup in Turkey is in Canakkale (Dedetepe Eco Farm
 
There are no known sellers of DivaCup in Turkey so it should be purchased online. The only known seller of Mooncup in Turkey is in Canakkale (Dedetepe Eco Farm
 
) so it's probably easiest to purchase it online as well.
 
) so it's probably easiest to purchase it online as well.
 
'''2018 update: Look in cosmetics stores and smaller shops that sell beauty supplies near universities. One box of Tampax (with applicators) will cost you ~16TL.'''
 
  
 
===Costs===
 
===Costs===
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===What to Get & Where to Get It===
 
===What to Get & Where to Get It===
  
There are a many hospitals and clinics in Istanbul, not only because it's a massive city, but also because it's a medical tourism destination. For this reason, it's recommended that you carefully consider the full range of options before making your choice. As a starting point, you should first know the three main types of hospitals to choose from. There are three main types:
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Some useful terminology: Vagina = vajina. Labia = labia. Biopsy of the endometrium (= endometrium in Turkish) is called probe curetaj. Curettage = curetaj. Myoma= myom. Fibroid = fibrom . Cervix = serviks. Uterus = uterus. Cyst= kist. Polyp= polip. Breast = meme. Nipple = Mamelon.  
  
* First, there are the state hospitals, or "Devlet Hastanesi" in Turkish. These public hospitals can be found all over Istanbul (for example, Uskudar Devlet Hastanesi, Beşiktaş Sait Çiftçi Devlet Hastanesi, etc). This [https://www.google.com/search?ei=Ccb4WdWXH8SO0wKG55SYDw&q=devlet%20hastanesi%20istanbul&oq=devlet+hastanesi+istanbul&gs_l=psy-ab.3..0j0i22i30k1l9.28408.29406.0.29593.9.9.0.0.0.0.112.840.5j4.9.0....0...1.1.64.psy-ab..0.9.836...0i20i263k1.0.yFDg7XW7ItI&npsic=0&rflfq=1&rlha=0&rllag=40946314,29036906,17880&tbm=lcl&rldimm=9057557611460465037&ved=0ahUKEwjwjLXtw5vXAhXqzVQKHZuZDEcQvS4IRzAA&rldoc=1&tbs=lrf:!2m1!1e2!2m1!1e3!3sIAE,lf:1,lf_ui:2#rlfi=hd:;si:9057557611460465037;mv:!1m3!1d176888.35698726412!2d28.9640655!3d41.006311749999995!2m3!1f0!2f0!3f0!3m2!1i1107!2i705!4f13.1;tbs:lrf:!2m1!1e2!2m1!1e3!3sIAE,lf:1,lf_ui:2 map] can give some sense of the distribution of the state hospitals in the city (though, be aware, that it probably doesn't show all state hospitals). If you're a Turkish citizen or have Turkish health care coverage, this is your cheapest option, and services will often be free. If you don't have Turkish health care coverage, the prices will be cheaper than a private hospital but they will not necessarily be "cheap." You can expect to pay quite a bit more than someone with Turkish health coverage. Meanwhile, for all patients at these hospitals, it's typical to deal with long wait times and bureaucracy. Health care practitioners will have varying levels of skill and sensitivity. The majority of the staff will not speak English, so it's recommended that you either know Turkish yourself or bring along someone who does.
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====Testimonials====
* Second, there are the Medical Centers, also known as "Tip Merkezi" in Turkish. You'll see many of these medical centers in Turkey, which always have "Tıp Merkezi" or "Medical Center" in the name. They function like private hospitals in many ways, in the sense that they're more independently run and can have higher-quality care. Unlike private hospitals, they work harder to keep down the costs and they only accept Turkish Social Security (SGK).
 
* Finally, there are the private hospitals. Generally speaking, you'll find the most efficient, responsive and highest-quality care at these facilities. However, the costs will be much higher. You can check out this [http://www.allaboutturkey.com/hospital_istanbul.htm list of private hospitals in Istanbul]. For private hospitals with English-speaking staff, you can check out this [https://photos.state.gov/libraries/istanbul/231771/PDFs/Hospital%20list-%20website%20version.pdf list from the American Consulate General].
 
 
 
Here are some useful terminology for hospital visits: Vagina = vajina. Labia = labia. Biopsy of the endometrium (= endometrium in Turkish) is called probe curetaj. Curettage = curetaj. Myoma= myom. Fibroid = fibrom . Cervix = serviks. Uterus = uterus. Cyst= kist. Polyp= polip. Breast = meme. Nipple = Mamelon.
 
 
 
====Recommended Gynecologists at Public  and Tip Merkezi Hospitals====
 
 
 
* '''Dr Zeynep Asil''' at [http://umrantip.com/ Ümran Tıp Merkezi Namazgah], which is located in Üsküdar. The gynecologist speaks English but not fluently. This hospital (and all other Tip Merkezi hospitals) are neither private hospitals nor public hospitals (also known as "devlet hastanesi"). Instead, they are a special type of hospital in Turkey: Tip Merkezi (translated as "Medical Center"). At these facilities, the costs are low and they only accept SGK. Even if you don't have SGK, the costs should be affordable. For example, the cost of a gynecological exam is 65 TL and the cost of a pap smear is 35 TL, as of October 2017. Hospital Address: Bulgurlu Mh. İzzettin Bey Sk No: 3 Üsküdar). Email: info@umrantip.co. Hospital Phone: 0216 461 94 92
 
 
 
====Recommended Gynecologists at Private Hospitals====
 
 
 
* '''Dr. Munip Berberoglugil, Vital Fulya Plaza, Sisli''' - "I warmly recommend gynaecologist Dr. Munip Berberoglugil at Vital Fulya Plaza in Sisli who cares a lot about his patients, studied in Brussels and speaks perfect French and English. He fixed me up after the surgery at Acibadem which had left me with abnormal bleeding and lots of questions (they did not even bother to make a second appointment after surgery for control, which is often free - like at Amerikan hastanesi for example)." - Istanbul local
 
 
 
* '''Prof. Dr. Yucel Karaman''' - "He is an authority, both in Istanbul as in Brussels, in the field of fertility problems and excellent gynaeclogist. He also speaks French and English." - Istanbul local
 
 
 
* '''Cevahir Tekcan, Liv Hospital Ulus''' - Recommended by someone in the family: "Her name is Cevahir Tekcan and she is amazing. Takes good care of you, makes you comfortable and speaks to you straight. And she doesn't try to push you to an expensive surgery if she can avoid it."
 
  
* '''Dr. Hakan, Maltepe Delta Hospital''' - Recommended by a user. She says, "He is my gyno he also delivered my son. He is very friendly, speaks english -- not perfect but I had no problem understanding him. Very helpful."
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'''Acibadem Maslak'''
  
*  '''Prof. Dr. Kılıç Aydınlı in Nişantaşı''': This female gynecologist comes highly recommended by an Istanbul local. "Very good, speaks English well." In 2016, a consultation was 350 TL, but you should inquire to find current rates.
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Testimonial 1: I was very unhappy with a gynaecological check up at Acibadem Maslak hospital lately. It is all about the money rather than about the patient. I am not complaining about the medical care but about the total lack of information i got by the doctor. (Asked the same question 3 times : why my endometrium was abnormally thick but all she could say was she had to do a hysteroscopy and perform a biopsy of my endometrium first and send it to the lab) This scared me to the point i agreed for immediate surgery the next morning without asking around, since i thought it might be cancer. I guess i was unlucky to end up with a gynaecologist that was bad in communication. She didn't even tell me i was going to have general anesthesia( so i planned to drive to the hospital myself) When i woke up I was not given any info, except that they had found polyps and sent it to the lab. Afterwards another doctor translated the report: they had removed a benign myoma and did a curettage) I was not given any hygenic pads (nobody told me beforehand i would be bleeding either). I was complaining about pain and they said it was normal, gave me a prescription to buy pain killers at the pharmacy before going home (in my country they give you the necessary medication before going home as well as complete detailed information by the doctor. ) I just felt awful and scared because i didn't know what was wrong with me.  
  
* '''Dr Ebru Alpher at American Hospital, Nisantasi''': This gynecologist was recommended by an Istanbul local.
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Testimonial 2: I had an experience and Acibadem Maslak, with this lady ob gyn. I forgot her name, but it wasn't pleased at all. I needed to ask the same question multiple times and still couldn't get clear info. And she was just trying to get me to do a surgery without further tests before, just with basic control. So my bf and i decided to try anpther doctor.  
  
* '''Dr. Levent Konuk''' at [https://www.facebook.com/CentralHospital/ Central Hospital]: He speaks Turkish (no English) only. He comes highly recommended by an Istanbul local. The hospital where he works (Central Hospital) is close to the Bostance metro station.
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'''Dr. Munip Berberoglugil, Vital Fulya Plaza, Sisli''' - I warmly recommend gynaecologist Dr. Munip Berberoglugil at Vital Fulya Plaza in Sisli who cares a lot about his patients, studied in Brussels and speaks perfect French and English. He fixed me up after the surgery at Acibadem which had left me with abnormal bleeding and lots of questions (they did not even bother to make a second appointment after surgery for control, which is often free - like at Amerikan hastanesi for example).
  
====Personal Testimonials====
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'''Prof. Dr. Yucel Karaman''' - He is an authority, both in Istanbul as in Brussels, in the field of fertility problems and excellent gynaeclogist. He also speaks French and English.
  
'''Acibadem Maslak - Testimonial 1''': I was very unhappy with a gynecological check up at Acibadem Maslak hospital lately. It is all about the money rather than about the patient. I am not complaining about the medical care but about the total lack of information I got by the doctor. (Asked the same question 3 times: why my endometrium was abnormally thick but all she could say was she had to do a hysteroscopy and perform a biopsy of my endometrium first and send it to the lab). This scared me to the point that I agreed to immediate surgery the next morning without asking around, since i thought it might be cancer. I guess I was unlucky to end up with a gynecologist that was bad in communication. She didn't even tell me I was going to have general anesthesia (so I planned to drive to the hospital myself). When I woke up, I was not given any information, except that they had found polyps and sent it to the lab. Afterwards, another doctor translated the report: they had removed a benign myoma and did a curettage. I was not given any hygenic pads (nobody told me beforehand i would be bleeding either). I was complaining about pain and they said it was normal, gave me a prescription to buy painkillers at the pharmacy before going home (in my country, they give you the necessary medication before going home, as well as complete detailed information by the doctor). I just felt awful and scared because i didn't know what was wrong with me.  
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'''Cevahir Tekcan, Liv Hospital Ulus''' - Recommended by someone in the family. Her name is Cevahir Tekcan and she is amazing. Takes good care of you, makes you comfortable and speaks to you straight. And she doesn't try to push you to an expensive surgery if she can avoid it.
  
'''Acibadem Maslak - Testimonial 2''': I had an experience and Acibadem Maslak, with this lady ob/gyn. I forgot her name, but I wasn't pleased at all. I needed to ask the same question multiple times and still couldn't get clear information. And she was just trying to get me to do a surgery without further tests beforehand, just with basic controls. So my boyfriend and I decided to try another doctor.
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'''Dr. Hakan, Maltepe Delta Hospital''' - Recommended by a user. She says, "He is my gyno he also delivered my son. He is very friendly, speaks english -- not perfect but I had no problem understanding him. Very helpful."
  
 
===Costs===
 
===Costs===
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To say "STD Test" in Turkish, simply say "STD Test" (it's the same as English). It seems that many hospitals can give tests for HIV, Hep B, Hep C and syphilis. However, it is much more difficult to also get tested for gonorrhea, chlamydia, etc. One way to get a free HIV, Hep B, Hep C and syphilis test is to donate blood to Kizilay (https://www.kizilay.org.tr/) because they test the blood and then get back to you. In July 2016, Şişli municipality launched a free and anonymous health service for the LGBT community, focusing on the prevention of STDs. Every 3 months, patients can receive a free STD test and examination. Patients can register with a nickname if they wish.
 
To say "STD Test" in Turkish, simply say "STD Test" (it's the same as English). It seems that many hospitals can give tests for HIV, Hep B, Hep C and syphilis. However, it is much more difficult to also get tested for gonorrhea, chlamydia, etc. One way to get a free HIV, Hep B, Hep C and syphilis test is to donate blood to Kizilay (https://www.kizilay.org.tr/) because they test the blood and then get back to you. In July 2016, Şişli municipality launched a free and anonymous health service for the LGBT community, focusing on the prevention of STDs. Every 3 months, patients can receive a free STD test and examination. Patients can register with a nickname if they wish.
  
Testimonial: "For all STD, after morning pills and infections, I believe the Austrian Hospital http://www.sjh.com.tr rocks! I am not sure about abortion. The prices are affordable (max 90-100 tl for a check-up and you have a second one within 10 days, free of charge, called 'control visit'). Moreover, it is half shared cost with SGK (national insurance) if you have it."
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Testimonial: "For all STD, after morning pills and infections, I believe the Austrian Hospital http://www.sjh.com.tr rocks! I am not sure about the abortion since it is not legal here. The prices are affordable (max 90-100 tl for a check up and you have a second one within 10 days, free of charge, called 'control visit'). Moreover, it is half shared cost with SGK (national insurance) if you have it."
  
 
Here's a list of some clinics that do STD testing in Turkey: http://www.whatclinic.com/doctors/turkey/sexually-transmitted-diseases-testing
 
Here's a list of some clinics that do STD testing in Turkey: http://www.whatclinic.com/doctors/turkey/sexually-transmitted-diseases-testing
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===Laws & Social Stigmas===
 
===Laws & Social Stigmas===
  
Since 1983, abortion has been fully legal in Turkey. In 2012, a law was proposed that would allow doctors to refuse performing abortions. In response, protesters took the streets. The law did not pass, but many doctors (especially in public hospitals) have reportedly acted like the law passed, and they have decided to stop performing abortions. This means that, currently, you can get an abortion in Turkey -- but only at select hospitals/clinics.
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Since 1983, abortion has been fully legal in Turkey. In 2012, a law was proposed that would allow doctors to refuse performing abortions. In response, protesters took the streets. The law did not pass, but many doctors (especially in public hospitals) have reportedly acted like the law passed, and they have decided to stop performing abortions. This means that, currently, you get an abortion in Turkey -- but not only at select hospitals/clinics.
  
 
In Turkey, you can get an abortion for up to 10 weeks of pregnancy. After 10 weeks, the abortion can only be performed if the woman's life is endangered or in cases of fetal impairment. Overall, legal reasons for abortion include: to save the life of the woman, to preserve physical health, to preserve mental health, rape or incest, fetal impairment, economic or social reasons, and availability on request. According to Law No. 2827 of 24 May 1983, Population Planning Law, married women need spousal consent, and minors or mentally disabled patients need approval from their parents, guardians or the magistrate's court. If there is endangerment to life or vital organs, no approval is required from spouses or parents/guardians. If there is a risk to the woman's life or risk of fetal malformation, two specialists (one ob/gyn and one specialist in a related field) must write their objective findings in a confirmation letter.  
 
In Turkey, you can get an abortion for up to 10 weeks of pregnancy. After 10 weeks, the abortion can only be performed if the woman's life is endangered or in cases of fetal impairment. Overall, legal reasons for abortion include: to save the life of the woman, to preserve physical health, to preserve mental health, rape or incest, fetal impairment, economic or social reasons, and availability on request. According to Law No. 2827 of 24 May 1983, Population Planning Law, married women need spousal consent, and minors or mentally disabled patients need approval from their parents, guardians or the magistrate's court. If there is endangerment to life or vital organs, no approval is required from spouses or parents/guardians. If there is a risk to the woman's life or risk of fetal malformation, two specialists (one ob/gyn and one specialist in a related field) must write their objective findings in a confirmation letter.  
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* Morçatı Kadın Sığınağı Vakfı (Purple Roof Women’s Shelter and Foundation) - Provides legal and practical aid to women who are victims of domestic violence Phone: Email: 0090 212 292 52 31-32. Katip Mustafa Celebi Mah. Anadolu Sok. No:23 D:7-8, Beyoglu-Istanbul, Turkey morcati@ttnet.net.tr. (http://www.morcati.org.tr/tr/)
 
* Morçatı Kadın Sığınağı Vakfı (Purple Roof Women’s Shelter and Foundation) - Provides legal and practical aid to women who are victims of domestic violence Phone: Email: 0090 212 292 52 31-32. Katip Mustafa Celebi Mah. Anadolu Sok. No:23 D:7-8, Beyoglu-Istanbul, Turkey morcati@ttnet.net.tr. (http://www.morcati.org.tr/tr/)
*[http://www.kadincinayetlerinidurduracagiz.net/for-english We Will Stop Femicide]: "The platform strives for stopping femicide and ensuring their protection from violence. It fights against all types women’s rights violations, starting wih the violation right to life." Phone: +90 506 880 20 61. Email: kadincinayetlerinidurduracagiz@gmail.com
 
  
 
===Costs===
 
===Costs===
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==List of Additional Resources==
 
==List of Additional Resources==
  
* [https://www.saglik.gov.tr/ Turkish Ministry of Health]
 
* [http://www.tapv.org.tr/ Türkiye Aile Sağlığı ve Planlaması Vakfı (Turkey Family Health and Planning Foundation)]
 
 
* Istanbul Hollaback - "Hollaback! is an international movement to end harassment. We believe that everyone has the right to feel safe and confident in public spaces." (http://istanbul-en.ihollaback.org/)
 
* Istanbul Hollaback - "Hollaback! is an international movement to end harassment. We believe that everyone has the right to feel safe and confident in public spaces." (http://istanbul-en.ihollaback.org/)
 
* Kirmiza Semsiye/Red Umbrella Sexual Health and Human Rights Association - "Red Umbrella Sexual Health and Human Rights Association aims to raise awareness and visibility regarding human rights violations experienced by male, female and transgender sex workers in Turkey." Based in Ankara. Phone: +90312.419.2991. Email: kirmizisemsiye@kirmizisemsiye.org. Website: http://kirmizisemsiye.org/
 
* Kirmiza Semsiye/Red Umbrella Sexual Health and Human Rights Association - "Red Umbrella Sexual Health and Human Rights Association aims to raise awareness and visibility regarding human rights violations experienced by male, female and transgender sex workers in Turkey." Based in Ankara. Phone: +90312.419.2991. Email: kirmizisemsiye@kirmizisemsiye.org. Website: http://kirmizisemsiye.org/

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