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Khartoum

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Sudan / Khartoum
Khartoum.jpg

OVERVIEW

In November 2019, Sudan repealed the "public order laws," which were a series of legal and moral rules that heavily restricted women in the country. Under these laws, women did not have the freedom to choose how to dress, who to talk to, or where they could work.[1] In 2020, the country officially banned female genital cutting (FGC), also known as female genital mutilation (FGM).[2]

Contraception (Birth Control)[edit]

General Note: There are many types of contraceptives, also known as "birth control," including IUDs, oral contraceptives, patches, shots, and condoms, etc. If you would like to view a full list, click here.

Laws & Social Stigmas[edit]

In Sudan, you can purchase condoms and birth control pills at pharmacies without a prescription.[3] [4] However, for other forms of birth control, such as implants, injectables, and IUDs, you may need to directly visit a hospital or clinic to obtain them.

The overall rate of modern contraceptive methods in Sudan remains low. While it has certainly increased in the last few decades— jumping from 4% in the late 1970s to 9% in 2012,[5] and a little under 10% by 2019— the rate of adoption has been very slow, especially in rural areas. This can be partially attributed to lack of education regarding modern contraceptive methods and, for rural women, increased difficulty in obtaining contraception. Furthermore, religion, cultural taboos and traditional gender roles can play a large part in women's decision-making. Sudan is a primarily Muslim country (estimated at 97% Muslim), and many women are heavily influenced by their husbands, religious clerics, or local communities. It's also important to remember that, in Sudan, about 87%-90% of women have undergone female genital mutilation (FGM).[5] While the country officially banned FGC in 2020, the actual enforcement of such laws is yet to be determined.

In 2014, the most common forms of contraception among Sudanese women (who were married/in unions and between 15-45 years old) were pills (7% of women) and injectables (about 1% of women). Less than 1% of women used IUDs and implants. Condoms were very uncommonly used. Traditional methods were also not very common, with less than 1% of women using the rhythm method or other traditional methods.[6] These numbers are generally consistent with findings in a 2007 study, which found that most women in Sudan (who used modern contraceptive methods) used the pill, IUD, and injectables, with very low usage of condoms. Some traditional methods, including rhythm, withdrawal, and breastfeeding, were also used by women in 2007.

The history of modern family planning in Sudan goes back to 1965, when the Sunday Family Planning Association was founded. This was followed by the establishment of the Maternal and Child Health and Family Planning Project by the Ministry of Health in 1975. Later, in 1985, family planning services were integrated under the Primary Health Care System. In 2010, contraceptive implants were adopted by FMH, which are primarily used in Khartoum.[7]

What to Get & Where to Get It[edit]

  • You can get an IUD at hospitals or health centers.
  • You can get the contraceptive implant in Sudan.

Costs[edit]

The contraceptive implant costs around 80 SDG (for the device) and 200 SDG for the insertion. The cost for an IUD is aboot 40 SDG.

Emergency Contraception (Morning After Pill)[edit]

Important Notes: Emergency contraception may prevent pregnancy for three days (72 hours) and sometimes five days (120 hours) after unprotected sex. Take EC as soon as possible after unprotected sex. If you don't have access to dedicated EC, oral contraceptives can be used as replacement EC, but remember the following: 1) Only some contraceptives work as EC 2) Different contraceptives require different dosages and time schedules to work as EC 3) You must only use the first 21 pills in 28-day packs and 4) They may be less effective than dedicated EC. For general information on emergency contraceptives, click here and here.

Laws & Social Stigmas[edit]

What to Get & Where to Get It[edit]

Note: The longest-lasting EC is currently ellaOne. It lasts up to 5 days (120 hours) after unprotected sex. Check to see if your country carries ellaOne. If your country doesn't carry ellaOne, copper IUDs may also prevent pregnancy up to 5 days after unprotected sex. If none of these options are available, and it's been over 3 days since you had unprotected sex, you can still take EC, which may work up to 5 days. Note that EC pills are not 100% effective and should be taken as soon as possible.

Costs[edit]

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs/STDs)[edit]

Important Notes - Learn about PEP and PrEP: If you think that you've been recently exposed to HIV (i.e. within 72 hours), seek out PEP (Post-Exposure Prophylaxis). It's a month-long treatment to prevent HIV infection after exposure, and it may be available in your city. Take PEP as soon as possible. For more information, click here. If you are at risk of HIV exposure, seek out PrEP (Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis). It's a daily oral pill that can prevent HIV infection before exposure. To learn more about PrEP, click here.

Laws & Social Stigmas[edit]

Testing Facilities[edit]

Support[edit]

Costs[edit]

Medications & Vaccines[edit]

Laws & Social Stigmas[edit]

What to Get & Where to Get It[edit]

Costs[edit]

Menstruation[edit]

Note: In addition to pads and tampons, you can also use menstrual cups and menstrual underwear for your period. To learn more about menstrual cups, click here. To learn more about menstrual underwear, click here.

Laws & Social Stigmas[edit]

What to Get & Where to Get It[edit]

Costs[edit]

Gynecological Exams[edit]

Laws & Social Stigmas[edit]

What to Get & Where to Get It[edit]

  • Sudan Family Planning Association: They have 11 permanent clinics and 4 mobile units, and the organization works in conjunction with 62 associated operations, 60 private physicians, and over 90 other agencies.
  • Dr. Hashim Ali Ahmed: This obstetrician/gynecologist operates out of Fedail Hospital & was included in a list of doctors provided by the US Embassy. They operate out of a private hospital, so costs will be more expensive than a public hospital, clinic, or NGO. Tel: 0183-766661

Costs[edit]

Pregnancy[edit]

Laws & Social Stigmas[edit]

What to Get & Where to Get It[edit]

Costs[edit]

Abortion[edit]

Important Note: There are two main types of abortions: medical (also known as the "abortion pill") and surgical (also known as "in-clinic"). For medical abortions, you take a pill to induce abortion. For surgical abortions, a procedure is performed to induce abortion. For general information about medical and surgical abortions, click here.

Laws & Social Stigmas[edit]

In Sudan, abortion is only permitted when pregnancy endangers the life of the woman,[8] or if the pregnancy has been caused by rape or incest. It is not available upon request.[9]

What to Get & Where to Get It[edit]

  • You may be able to get the abortion pill via mail from Women on Waves. Check out this link for more details.
  • "Misoprostol (one part of the abortion pill) is registered for the use of PPH." [9]
  • You can contact Sudan Family Planning Association (SFPA ) to find out your options. Tel: +249249(183) 227 872 , 249(183) 227 874 , 249(183) 227 875

Costs[edit]

Advocacy & Counseling[edit]

Laws & Social Stigmas[edit]

What to Get & Where to Get It[edit]

Costs[edit]

List of Additional Resources[edit]

  • Public Health Institute - Sudan
  • Sudan Family Planning Association: "The Sudan Family Planning Association (SFPA) was established in 1965 by pioneers in obstetrics and gynaecology in response to increases in maternal, neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity. As the statistics show, Sudan is a country in great need of frontline sexual and reproductive health (SRH) services. Advocacy, and undertaking information, education and communication (IEC) programmes are critical."
  • International Planned Parenthood Foundation: Sudan: You can find articles and resources on women's health care in Sudan here.
  • Sudan 2020: Information on sexual and reproductive health data and trends in Sudan.
  • Equaldex Sudan: Click here to learn about LGBTQ rights and laws in Sudan. It is important to understand that homosexuality is illegal in Sudan.

References[edit]

  1. Sudan crisis: Women praise end of strict public order law
  2. Sudan criminalises female genital mutilation (FGM)
  3. Global Oral Contraception Availability
  4. Free the Pill: Where on Earth?
  5. 5.0 5.1 FGM spreading to minority groups in Sudan, say campaigners
  6. United Nations: Contraceptive Use By Method DataBooklet 2019
  7. Description of Available Contraceptive Methods in Sudan
  8. Center for Reproductive Rights: The World's Abortion Laws
  9. 9.0 9.1 Abortion law Sudan