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/* Laws & Social Stigmas */
===Laws & Social Stigmas===
In Rwanda, abortion is legally permitted when the pregnancy endangers the life of the pregnant individual, when the pregnancy endangers the physical or mental health of the pregnant individual, when there is severe risk of fetal impairment, or when the pregnancy is the result of rape, incest or forced marriage.<ref>[ Women on Waves: Abortion Law in Rwanda]</ref> <ref>[ World Abortion Laws Map]</ref> <ref>[ Rwanda: Government Moves to Relax Anti-Abortion Law]</ref> <ref>[ Rwandan rape survivors jailed for abortion despite law to help them]</ref> In all other cases, abortion is not legally permitted. This means that it is not available upon request and it is not available for social or economic reasons. If someone illegally tries to self-induce an abortion, they may be subject to fines and up to three years in prison.<ref>[ Rwanda Abortion Law]</ref> The current laws are based on Rwanda's Penal Code of 1977 and the updated Penal Code of 2012.<ref>[ East Africa Centre for Law and Justice: Abortion in Rwanda]</ref>For a copy of Rwanda's abortion provisions, click [ here].
For an abortion to be legal, it must first be approved by a judge and it can only be performed by a doctor. If the abortion is legally permitted for health-related reasons, it must receive the written approval of two doctors before it can be performed. These restrictions create severe hurdles for many people, as they must have the money and resources to hire lawyers and work within the legal and medical systems before receiving approval for an abortion. Furthermore, courts can be slow in permitting abortions. For example, court orders for an abortion in cases of rape often usually occur after the rapist has been convicted, leading to potentially significant delays for the individual seeking an abortion.<ref>[ Rwandan rape survivors jailed for abortion despite law to help them]</ref>
For these reasons, it is much more common for Rwandans to seek underground or clandestine abortions than to seek out abortions through legal channels. <ref>[ Why are more women opting for illegal abortion?]</ref> In 2013 report, it was found that nearly half (47%) of pregnancies were unintended and an estimated 22% of unintended pregnancies result in abortion. In 2009, there were 60,000 abortions in Rwanda per year, which roughly equaled 25 abortions per 1000 woman, aged 15-44. The most abortions are performed in Kigali, which account for one-third of all abortions in the country. About half of the abortions in Rwanda are performed by medical professionals, such as trained midwives or medical assistants, but another half are performed by people who do not have medical training, and these abortions are considered high-risk. It is estimated that about 40% of women who have abortions experience complications, and 30% of women who have complications do not obtain the medical treatment and attention that they need. The highest rate of complications result from women who try to induce abortions themselves or who go to traditional healers.<ref>[ Guttmacher Institute: Abortion in Rwanda, 2013]</ref>
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